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10. Pyruvate kinase


published: 21 Nov 2011 (16:36)

Glucose an overview

Glucose belongs to one of the greatest class of chemical compounds, the carbohydrates or saccharides, or to be more precise, the monosaccharides. The name carbohydrates represents the fact that many saccharides can be shown by the simple stoichiometric formula (CH2O)n.

Glucose plays an important role as a structural element of many biological materials. Here are some important examples of biological substances that are glucose or other saccharides in whole or in part: cellulose of woody plants, exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods and cell walls of bacteria are the most important examples. Amylose, amylopectin and glycogen are stored polysaccharides in plants and animals, respectively. These compounds are homopolysaccharides of the class called glucans, the polymers of glucose. Another important role of polysaccharides is the formation of glycoproteins - proteins with covalently linked oligosaccharides.

This cycle shows the schematic pathway of glucose in the biosphere. The amount of glucose produced by animals is significantly smaller in comparison with plant production and used almost for internal biosynthesis rather than energy source.

Carbohydrates and especially glucose play a central role in the biosphere energetic cycle as a first organic molecule synthesised by plants during photosynthesis from energy of the light and carbon dioxide CO2. Animals and bacterial cells obtain carbohydrates through digestion of plants. Carbon dioxide or CO2 and water from respiration cycle are the final products or the glucose utilization by animals. Animals can digest glucose in a form of mono- and polysaccharides.

Glucose general data

Chemical name: 6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Molecular mass: 180.16 g/mol
Density: 1.54 gxcm-3
Melting point: α-D-Glucose: 146°C
β-D-Glucose: 150°C

Glucose chemical structure

Glucose brutal formula

Glucose is a monosaccharides with brutal formula (CH2O)6 or in more convenient format: C6H12O6 contains sic carbon atoms and one aldehyde group and therefore classified as an aldohexose.

Glucose mutarotation

In solution Glucose can be present at least in five different tautomeric forms. All these tautomeric forms (or tautomers) are in dynamic equilibrium. This process is called mutarotation. In neutral pH the equilibrium can be reached in hours, while in high or low pH the equilibrium is reached immediately.

General relations within D-aldose family

Triose carbohydrate
Mr: 90.08
Tetrose carbohydrate
Mr: 120.10
Pentose carbohydrate
Mr: 150.13
Hexose carbohydrate
Mr: 180.16


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